Drilling a Borewell Includes 5 major stages to trap water from underground to the surface:
1. Selection of point to drill Borewell
2. Drilling the Borewell until the required level
3. Visualizing the number of fractures present in the Borewell
4. yield test to exactly know the discharge of water per hour or min.
5. Selection of pump or motor based on amount of yield
Selection of point : Although Geologists or water divining experts provide the exact station to drill a Borewell, initial planning task is very much important in drilling.
Stage-1 : make a research on neighbours borewell depth minimum and maximum feet.
Stage-2 : Ask all the well owners about their amount of yield in the borewells till date since drilling according to the season.
Stage-3: Inspect the major Ground recharging units around your area like natural river, open ground, lakes, sea or reservoirs.
Stage-4: Calculate the number of borewells failed after drilling in your area.
Stage-5: speak to a expert in regards to your plan of drilling the Borewell
Toward Sustainable Groundwater in Agriculture – An International Conference Linking Science and Policy
This three-day international conference brought together leading scientists, policy analysts, policy and decision makers, and agricultural and environmental stakeholder groups to define and highlight the science, challenges, and potential policy solutions in agricultural groundwater resources management and groundwater quality protection that will provide a sustainable future at regional, national, and global scales.
Groundwater is the lifeline for many rural and agricultural regions and their associated cultures and populations around the globe and a cornerstone of global food production. Groundwater constitutes nearly half the world’s drinking water and much of the world’s irrigation water supply. Population growth, overexploitation, salinization, nonpoint source pollution from agricultural activities (including animal farming, ranching, and forestry activities), impacts to surface water, and groundwater quality and quantity conflicts at the urban-rural interface have reached global dimensions and threaten the health and livelihood of this planet.
Over 200 speakers and poster presenters were on hand. The conference featured daily plenary sessions, concurrent tracks with oral presentations, and poster sessions with reception offering a wide range of policy and technical presentations.
The conference will featured discussions about threats to groundwater, such as overuse; salinity; nonpoint source pollution from agricultural activities, animal farming, agricultural groundwater impacts to surface water; and groundwater quality and quantity conflicts at the urban-rural interface, which have reached global dimensions and threaten the very livelihood of this planet. Challenges, opportunities, and successful solutions in the technical and policy fields were highlighted. The conference offered a unique opportunity for networking across disciplines.
Session topics explored a broad diversity but related set of issues at the groundwater-agriculture nexus:
Groundwater Management and Policy
California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA)
Nitrate policy, assessment, and monitoring
Nonpoint source pollution from animal agriculture
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems and groundwater-surface water interaction
Managed aquifer recharge
Environmental justice and livelihood
Climate change and adaptation
Economics and policy
Salinity and salinity policy
Modeling and data (groundwater quantity/management/quality)
Agricultural BMPs for groundwater resources quantity and/or quality protection
USDA National Insights and Actions
The over 300 attendees included:
agricultural leaders/advocates/extension trainers in local/regional/state organizations
groundwater managers and technical personnel in local and regional water agencies
regulatory and planning agency personnel in regional/state/federal agencies
consultants in engineering, hydrology/hydrogeology, and agricultural resources management
scientists, researchers, and students with interests at the groundwater-agriculture nexus
NGOs working in environment, environmental justice, and agriculture
The Foundation and UC Davis sponsored a similar conference in 2010. The 2016 conference was held June 28-30 at the same location – the Hyatt Regency at the San Francisco Airport in Burlingame. Additional pre-conference workshops were held Monday, June 27.
Videos and powerpoint presentations of the 2016 conference will be available by September 2016. A journal special issue call is forthcoming by August 2016.
South Africa is a country located at the Southern Tip of Africa. About twice the size of Texas it is home to 49 million people. This country has been stricken by affects from the long standing apartheid to the devastation that diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB have caused. Now another crisis looms in the distance: Water. As more and more people migrate into cities from rural villages the pressure for the city to meet the water demands is ever increasing.
There are many reasons that attribute to this growing water crisis in South Africa. Climate change has affected water supplies within the region. Rains that usually come and supply the country’s water has come infrequently. For example in Durban the Dams are 20 percent lower than at the start of 2010. Due to this fact cities are looking to impose water restrictions on communities.
Another problem that Durban in particular faces is stolen water. According to one report 35 percent of the cities water is stolen or given out through illegal connections.
Also, preventative measures that were put in place such as the construction of dams in the area have not even started or are still in the process of being built and those structures that are in place now are slowly collapsing. Those in rural areas still lack access to water. One report stated that in 2008 about 5 million people lack access to water and 15 million lack access to basic sanitation. This number has improved greatly since the end of apartheid in 1994, however these numbers are still too high and not one person should ever lack access to the most basic necessity of life, which is water.
Interestingly enough South Africa boast one of the most clean water systems in the world, however due to the lack of sanitation and access in the country’s rural communities the threat of water borne disease is steadily increasing. The Vaal River, the largest river in South Africa and popular tourist destination is becoming increasingly contaminated with fecal material due to the lack of sanitation supplies. It is so bad that the local water agency Rand Water issued a statement that contact with the river may lead to serious infection. Wildlife is also being affected from the raw sewage run off. A court-ordered mandate was issued to remove 20 tons of dead fish from the river after a local NGO SAVE (Save the Vaal River Environment) took the Emfuelni munincipilty to court for leaking raw sewage into the river. They blamed the reason for dumping sewage in the river on old pipes.
Overall, infrastructure is lacking, whether or not it is old pipes or ignorance the South Africa water crisis is here and affecting millions. There has been a backlog in services since the end of apartheid and that needs to change. The national and local governments of South Africa need to do a better job of offering services to their people. Supplies need to be given to those most in need. By taking care of the rural population the government will be helping the cities, because it is these rural communities where the damage to the water supply is beginning due to lack of access to sanitation supplies and clean water education.